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Parafraziranje

Parafraziranje je navođenje tuđeg rada sopstvenim riječima, uz zadržavanje istog značenja. 
Profesori obično više vrednuju parafraziranje nego direktno citiranje, jer parafraziranjem informacije vi pokazujete da se misaoni proces odigrao; drugim riječima, razmišljali ste o informaciji i razumjeli ono što ste pročitali. Parafraziranje vam omogućava:
  • da pokažete da razumijete ono što ste pročitali i da to znanje možete primijeniti;
  • da bolje izrazite vaš lični stil i nesmetan kontinuitet vašeg eseja.

Primjeri parafraziranja

Koji od sljedećih odlomaka je primjer neprihvatljivog parafraziranja, a koji prikazuje prihvatljivo parafraziranje
i navođenje referenci? U ovom primjeru (Epigeum 2011) korišćen je Harvardski sistem. 

Primjer: Uticaj Karla Marksa

Najprije navodimo originalni izvod, uzet iz knjige Marx and Marxism, koju je napisao Peter Worsley. 
Karl Marx has probably affected the course of twentieth-century history more than any other single thinker. Because of this, his ideas have generated a vast output of writings, ranging from texts written by revolutionaries aimed at telling people how to do revolution - how to carry on Marx’s work of demolishing capitalism and creating a new socialist society - to the many hundreds of volumes dedicated to proving that Marx was wrong about practically everything.
Evo šta su dva studenta napisala u svojim disertacijama. Koji je od radova, ako je to ijedan od njih, prihvatljiv?

Karl Marx, the inspiration for revolutionary activity in many countries, has probably affected the course of 20C history more than almost any other thinker. Because of this, his ideas have generated a vast output of writings, ranging from books written about revolution - how to demolish capitalism and create a new socialist society - to books dedicated to proving that Marx was wrong about practically everything.
Referenca: Worsley, P., 2002. Marx and Marxism.
2nd ed. London: Routledge.
Worsley (2002) suggests that Karl Marx has had a significant impact on the course of twentieth-century history. He argues that Marx’s ideas have led to a great deal of writing, across a spectrum from promoting his call for revolution to trying to show he was wrong in his analysis and predictions
 
Referenca: Worsley, P., 2002. Marx and Marxism.
2nd ed. London: Routledge.
Koji je prihvatljiv?

Parafrazirati ili koristiti citate?

Poželjno je da parafrazirate (prenosite ideje sopstvenim riječima), s obzirom da suviše citata (korišćenje egzaktnih riječi) može dovesti do loše napisanog zadatka. Opšte pravilo u akademskim krugovima je da bi manje od 10% zadatka trebalo da bude u obliku direktnih citata. Bez obzira da li koristite citate ili parafrazirate nečije tuđe riječi, uvijek morate navoditi reference — i u tekstu, i u listi referenci.

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